In a new biography, the Islamic Republic of Iran's "Supreme Guide," Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, recalls his "passion for reading famous Iranian and world novels" and insists on "the deep impact" that reading novels had on him. Ironically, all the novels he devoured with great appetite are on Iran's blacklist of books that "corrupt public morality and violate religious values." Iranians who are today the same age as Khamenei was in his youth cannot read the books he loved. (Image source: khamenei.ir/Wikimedia Commons)
"Tell me which books you read, and I'll tell you who you are!" That was how the late Iranian literary critic Mohit Tabatabai used to tease Tehran's glitterati in the "good old days." To be sure, the claim wasn't based on any scientific study but empirical evidence showed that it wasn't quite off the mark either. Books do offer an insight into the soul of a reader, provided he has a soul.
Thus, those interested in all things Iranian, especially in these exciting times, wouldn't want to miss a new book on the Islamic Republic's "Supreme Guide" Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, if only because it devotes a chapter to books that he loved as a young man.
The new book, a sort of biography, was originally written in Arabic under the title "En Ma'a al-sabr fathan" ("Patience Leads to Victory") but has just come out in Persian translation under a pseudo-poetical title, "The Drop of Blood That Became a Ruby". The "Supreme Guide" recalls his "passion for reading famous Iranian and world novels" and insists on "the deep impact" that reading novels had on him.
But what novels did the future "Supreme Guide" found especially captivating?
Top of Khamenei's list are 10 of the cloak-and-dagger novels written by Michel Zevaco, the Corsican-French writer who helped popularize what the English call "penny-dreadful" romances in France. Zevaco uses a simple formula: taking a historic character or event and fictionalizing it with a dose of page-turning pathos. Zevaco's world is a universe of sex, violence, conspiracy and betrayal. In Zevaco's best-selling novel "Borgia," the head of the dreadful Borgia family that dominated Florentine politics in the medieval times, rapes his own sister Lucrece, a seductive blonde. The novel "Nostradamus" is a fictionalized biography of a roaming charlatan who claimed to read the future to gain money, power, sex and fame.
Zevaco's most popular novels come in the series known as "Les Paradaillans" of which only two are translated into Persian.
Zevaco was an anarchist who edited the movement's organ "Les Gueux" (The Beggars) and aims at highlighting the corruption of European ruling classes. Ferociously anti-clerical, Zevaco regards organized religion as "the poison of the masses". Some of his best writing is about the massacre of Huguenots (Protestant Christians) by the French King Charles IX under the influence of his shrewish mother Catherine de Medici.
Khamenei's next favourite novelist is Alexandre Dumas, another spinner of 19th century swashbuckling yarns including the "Three Musketeers", "The Count of Montecristo", "Twenty Years Later" and, the gripping "Cagliostro," relating the adventures of Joseph Balsamo, another charlatan in search of sex, money and power. Duma's work has less sex, revenge and violence than Zevaco but the two French authors share many similarities, especially when it comes to fast-paced adventures and unexpected reversals of fortune.
Another 19th century French novelist is Maurice Leblanc, best known for his "Arsene Lupin" series about a gentleman thief who robs gentlemen -- a classic of escapist literature.
Leblanc's work shares two features with the works of Zevaco and Dumas. The first is the creation of an alternative world as a fictionalized double for the real one. The second is the central hero's disdain for codes and norms of established bourgeois morality.
Khamenei says that he also read "almost all Iranian novels" of the period.
At the time of Khamenei's youth, Persian novels seldom went beyond imitations of French novels of the late 19th century with Joris-Karl Huysmans, Emile Zola, Hector Malot and Anatole France as favourites. Because Iranian intellectuals disliked the British, none bothered to translate major English novels until the 1950s and, in the case of American literature, until a decade later. For the average Iranian reader, young men like Khamenei, France was the world's "Literary Superpower." Russian literature was also little known, again partly because of Iranian elite's dislike of Russia as an enemy of Persia for two centuries.
Curiously all the Iranian novelists of the time Khamenei talks about chose women as central characters at a time that Iranian women were still treated as second class citizens.
Ali Dashti's novel offers a heroin named "Fitneh" (Sedition) who decides to use her charms to move up the ladder in a world dominated by men.
Muhammad Hejazi's heroin "Ziba" is equally charming and ruthless in pursuit of a place in a world that tries to shut women out.
Then we have "Shahrashub" (literally: the disturber of peace in the city) the heroine of Hossein-Qoli Mosta'an whose appetite for sex is as keen as that of the main male character Aqa-Bala Khan. Another popular novel by Mosta'an, "Rabi'a," also has a woman as central character but is set in medieval times.
Jawad Fadil's "Yeganeh" is in a different register, a romantic tear-jerker about star-crossed lovers. But even there, it is the heroin "Yeganeh" (The Unique One) who captains the wayward ship of a forlorn love. Fadil's second novel, "Sho'eleh" (The Flame), also has a woman as its central character but is more ambitious in literary terms.
Taghi Modaressi's heroin "Yakolia" in the novel of the same title is the most literary of the works of that period with the added distinction of being set in Biblical times.
In Rahmat Mostafavi's "Socalites" a group of strong and independent-minded women try to carve a niche for themselves in a paternalistic society obsessed with "Islamic values". Even Muhammad Masud's thriller, "Awesome Tehran," (Tehran e Makhouf) features a number of atypical Iranian women who could, when necessary, be as ruthless and as cunning as the men who tried to dominate them.
The best-selling novel of the latter-end of that period was Muhammad-Ali Afghani's "Ahu Khanum's Husband" which launched a nationwide debate on the status of women and was used as material for a feature film and a television series.
It is difficult to know what Khamenei thought of those women. Zevaco's heroines, notably Lucretia, may have frightened him with their lust for debauchery. But, I guess, he may have found Forugh, Aqa Bala-Khan's wife, who courageously fights for her dignity, might have frightened the future " Supreme Guide" even more.
Khamenei says he loved and cherished all those books. Ironically, however, all the novels he devoured with great appetite are on a blacklist of books that "corrupt public morality and violate religious values", established under President Muhammad Khatami in 1999. Iranians who are today the same age as Khamenei was in his youth cannot read the books he loved.
Amir Taheri, formerly executive editor-in-chief of Iran's premier newspaper, Kayhan, before the Iranian revolution of 1979, is a prominent author based on Europe. He is the Chairman of Gatestone Europe.